Solaris 10 10/09: In previous Solaris releases, you could not install and boot the Solaris OS from a disk that was greater than 1 TB in size. In this Solaris release, you can install and boot the Solaris OS from a disk that is up to 2 TB in size. In previous releases, you also had to use an EFI label for a disk that is larger than 1 TB. In this release, you can use the VTOC label on any size disk, but the addressable space by the VTOC is limited to 2 TB.
The Solaris disk drivers and disk utilities have been updated to provide the following support:
Installing and booting the Solaris OS on a two-terabyte disk
must be connected to a system that runs a 64-bit kernel, with a minimum of
1 GB of memory.
You can use the format -e utility
to label a disk of any size with a VTOC label, but the addressable space is
limited to 2 TB.
The default label that is used by the format utility
and the installation software for a disk that is less than 2 TB in size is
a VTOC label.
You can use the fdisk utility on a disk
that is greater than 1 TB on x86 systems. Support is added for up to 2-TB
partitions in the MBR for non-EFI partition types. This support means that
Solaris partitions can go up to 2 TB. Other non-EFI partitions may be subject
to a limit depending on partition type.
When the fdisk utility is run on a disk that is greater than 2 TB in size, a warning message is displayed to indicate that you cannot create a non-EFI partition that is greater than 2 TB.
The Solaris Volume Manager software has been modified to create
metadevices that support physical disks with VTOC labels up to 2 TB in size.
For more information about the EFI label changes in this release, see EFI Disk Label.
iSNS Support in the Solaris iSCSI Target and InitiatorSolaris 10 8/07: This Solaris release provides support for the Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) protocol in the Solaris iSCSI target and initiator software. The iSNS protocol allows for the automated discovery, management, and configuration of iSCSI devices on a TCP/IP network.
In this Solaris release, you can use the iscsitadm command to add access to an existing third-party iSNS server or you can user the Solaris iSNS server to automatically discover the iSCSI devices in your network. The iSNS server can be specified by hostname or IP address. After you add the iSNS server information, you will need to enable access to the server.
See the following resources for step-by-step instructions:
For information about configuring the Solaris iSCSI target
to use a third-party iSNS server, see Chapter 14, Configuring Oracle Solaris iSCSI Targets and Initiators (Tasks) and iscsitadm(1M).
For information about configuring
the Solaris iSCSI target with a Solaris iSNS server in the Solaris Express
release, see Chapter 15, Configuring and Managing the Solaris Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS), in System Administration Guide: Devices and File Systems.
Solaris iSCSI Target SupportSolaris 10 8/07: This Solaris release provides support for iSCSI target devices, which can be disk or tape devices. Previous Solaris releases provide support for iSCSI initiators. The advantage of setting up Solaris iSCSI targets is you might have existing Fibre-Channel devices that can be connected to clients without the cost of Fibre-Channel HBAs. In addition, systems with dedicated arrays can now export replicated storage with ZFS or UFS file systems.
You can use the iscsitadm command to set up and manage your iSCSI target devices. For the disk device that you select as your iSCSI target, you'll need to provide an equivalently sized ZFS or UFS file system as the backing store for the iSCSI daemon.
After the target device is set up, use the iscsiadm command to identify your iSCSI targets, which will discover and use the iSCSI target device.
For more information, see Chapter 14, Configuring Oracle Solaris iSCSI Targets and Initiators (Tasks), iscsiadm(1M), and iscsitadm(1M).
A previous version of this guide incorrectly indicated that the Solaris iSCSI target support was available in the Solaris 10 11/06 release. This feature is available starting in the Solaris 10 8/07 release.
Solaris iSCSI Initiator SupportSolaris 10 1/06: iSCSI is an Internet Protocol (IP)-based storage networking standard for linking data storage subsystems. By carrying SCSI commands over IP networks, the iSCSI protocol enables you to mount disk devices, from across the network, onto your local system. On your local system, you can use the devices like block devices.
For more information, see Chapter 14, Configuring Oracle Solaris iSCSI Targets and Initiators (Tasks).
Solaris iSCSI Initiator Support EnhancementsSolaris 10 6/06: The following enhancements have been added to the Solaris iSCSI initiator support:
Dynamic target removal support – Provides the ability
to remove (or log out) an iSCSI target without rebooting the system. If you
try to remove or disable a discovery method or address, and the target is
not in use, the target is removed and related resources are released. If the
target is in use, the discovery address or method remains enabled, and in
use message is displayed.
For more information, see How to Remove Discovered iSCSI Targets.
Internet Storage Name Service (iSNS) client support –
Enables the iSCSI initiator to discover the targets to which it has access
using as little configuration as possible. It also provides state change notification
functionality to notify the iSCSI initiator when changes in operational state
of storage nodes occur. The iscsiadm command has been enhanced
to support iSNS discovery.
For more information, see How to Configure iSCSI Target Discovery.
Multiple session target (MS/T) support – Provides the
ability to create more iSCSI sessions or paths to a target on demand. The
additional iSCSI paths provide higher bandwidth aggregation and availability
in specific configurations, such as iSCSI arrays that support login redirection.
The iSCSI MS/T feature should be used in combination with MPxIO or other multipathing
software. The iscsiadm command has been enhanced to support
x86: Disk Management in the GRUB Boot EnvironmentSolaris 10 1/06: The GRUB boot menu has replaced the previous method for booting an x86 system. In the area of disk management, you use the GRUB interface when booting from an alternative device to replace a system disk or when installing the bootblocks.
The GRUB boot environment provides the following features:
Solaris failsafe boot –
A Solaris failsafe boot option that boots into the miniroot so you can recover
from a problem that is preventing the system from booting without having to
boot from an alternative device. Use the arrow keys to select the following
option from the GRUB boot menu and then press return:
Network boot – Boot
from the network by pressing the F12 key during the BIOS configuration phase.
Single-user boot –
Boot to single-user mode by selecting this option from the Solaris failsafe
kernel /platform/i86pc/multiboot -s
For detailed feature information and instructions on using the new GRUB based booting on x86 systems, see Booting an x86 Based System by Using GRUB (Task Map) in System Administration Guide: Basic Administration.
For instructions for managing disks in the GRUB boot environment, see the following references:
Support for SCSI Disks That are Larger Than 2 TerabytesSolaris 10 1/06: The SCSI driver, ssd or sd, supports 2 terabytes and greater. The SCSI driver, ssd or sd, is limited to 2 TB in previous Solaris releases.
The format utility can be used to label, configure, and partition these larger disks. For information about using the EFI disk label on large disks and restrictions with the fdisk utility, see Restrictions of the EFI Disk Label.
Where to Find Disk Management TasksUse these references to find step-by-step instructions for managing disks.
|Disk Management Task||For More Information|
|Format a disk and examine a disk label.||Chapter 11, Administering Disks (Tasks)|
|Add a new disk to a SPARC system.||Chapter 12, SPARC: Adding a Disk (Tasks)|
|Add a new disk to an x86 system.||Chapter 13, x86: Adding a Disk (Tasks)|
|Hot-plug a SCSI or PCI disk.||Chapter 6, Dynamically Configuring Devices (Tasks)|
Overview of Disk ManagementManaging disks in the Oracle Solaris OS usually involves setting up the system and running the Solaris installation program to create the appropriate disk slices and file systems and to install the Oracle Solaris OS. Occasionally, you might need to use the format utility to add a new disk drive or replace a defective disk drive.
Disk TerminologyBefore you can effectively use the information in this section, you should be familiar with basic disk architecture. In particular, you should be familiar with the following terms:
|Track||A concentric ring on a disk that passes under a single stationary disk head as the disk rotates.|
|Cylinder||The set of tracks with the same nominal distance from the axis about which the disk rotates.|
|Sector||Section of each disk platter. A sector holds 512 bytes.|
|Block||A data storage area on a disk. A disk block is 512 bytes.|
|Disk controller||A chip and its associated circuitry that controls the disk drive.|
|Disk label||The first sector of a disk that contains disk geometry and partition information.|
|Device driver||A kernel module that controls a hardware or virtual device.|
About Disk LabelsA special area of every disk is set aside for storing information about the disk's controller, geometry, and slices. This information is called the disk's label. Another term that is used to described the disk label is the VTOC (Volume Table of Contents) on a disk with a VTOC label. To label a disk means to write slice information onto the disk. You usually label a disk after you change its slices.
The Solaris release supports the following two disk labels:
SMI – The traditional VTOC label for disks that are
less than 2 TB in size.
EFI – Provides support for disks that are larger than
2 TB on systems that run a 64-bit Solaris kernel. The Extensible Firmware
Interface GUID Partition Table (EFI GPT) disk label is also available for
disks less than 2 TB that are connected to a system that runs a 32-bit Solaris
EFI Disk LabelThe EFI label provides support for physical disks and virtual disk volumes that are greater than 2 TB in size. This release also includes updated disk utilities for managing disks greater than 2 TB in size. The UFS file system is compatible with the EFI disk label, and you can create a UFS file system greater than 2 TB. For information on creating a multiterabyte UFS file system, see 64-bit: Support of Multiterabyte UFS File Systems.
The unbundled Sun QFS file system is also available if you need to create file systems greater than 1 TB. For information on the Sun QFS file system, see Sun QFS, Sun SAM-FS, and Sun SAM-QFS File System Administrator’s Guide.
The Solaris Volume Manager software can also be used to manage disks greater than 1 TB in this Solaris release. For information on using Solaris Volume Manager, see Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide.
The VTOC label is still available for disks less than 2 terabytes in size. If you are only using disks smaller than 2 TB on your systems, managing disks will be the same as in previous Solaris releases. In addition, you can use the format-e command to label a disk 2 TB in size or less with an EFI label. For more information, see Example 11–6.
You can use the format -e command to apply an EFI label to a disk if the system is running the appropriate Solaris release. However, you should review the important information in Restrictions of the EFI Disk Label before attempting to apply an EFI label.
You can also use the format -e command to reapply a VTOC label if the EFI label is no longer needed. For example:
# format Specify disk (enter its number): 2 selecting c0t5d0 [disk formatted] . . . format> label  SMI Label  EFI Label Specify Label type: 0 Warning: This disk has an EFI label. Changing to SMI label will erase all current partitions. Continue? yes Auto configuration via format.dat[no]? Auto configuration via generic SCSI-2[no]? format> quit
Keep in mind that changing disk labels will destroy any data on the disk.
Comparison of the EFI Label and the VTOC LabelThe EFI disk label differs from the VTOC disk label in the following ways:
Provides support for disks greater than 2 terabytes in size.
Provides usable slices 0-6, where slice 2 is just another
Partitions (or slices) cannot overlap with the primary or
backup label, nor with any other partitions. The size of the EFI label is
usually 34 sectors, so partitions usually start at sector 34. This feature
means that no partition can start at sector zero (0).
No cylinder, head, or sector information is stored in the
EFI label. Sizes are reported in blocks.
Information that was stored in the alternate cylinders area,
the last two cylinders of the disk, is now stored in slice 8.
If you use the format utility to change
partition sizes, the unassigned partition tag is assigned
to partitions with sizes equal to zero. By default, the format utility
assigns the usr partition tag to any partition with a size
greater than zero. You can use the partition change menu to reassign partition
tags after the partitions are changed. However, you cannot change a partition
with a non-zero size to the unassigned partition tag.
Restrictions of the EFI Disk LabelKeep the following restrictions in mind when determining whether using disks greater than 1 terabyte is appropriate for your environment:
Layered software products intended for systems with VTOC-labeled
disks might be incapable of accessing a disk with an EFI disk label.
A disk with an EFI label is not recognized on systems running
previous Solaris releases.
You cannot boot from a disk with an EFI disk label.
On x86-based systems, you can use the fdisk command
on a disk with an EFI label that is greater than 2 TB in size.
You cannot use the Solaris Management Console's Disk Manager
tool to manage disks with EFI labels. Use the format utility
to partition disks with EFI labels. Then, you can use the Solaris Management
Console's Enhanced Storage Tool to manage volumes and disk sets with EFI-labeled
The EFI specification prohibits overlapping slices. The entire
disk is represented by cxtydz.
The EFI disk label provides information about disk or partition
sizes in sectors and blocks, but not in cylinders and heads.
The following format options are either
not supported or are not applicable on disks with EFI labels:
The save option is not supported because
disks with EFI labels do not need an entry in the format.dat file.
The backup option is not applicable because
the disk driver finds the primary label and writes it back to the disk.
- The save option is not supported because disks with EFI labels do not need an entry in the format.dat file.
Support for EFI-Labeled Disks on x86 SystemsSolaris support for the EFI disk label is available on x86 systems. Use the following command to add an EFI label on an x86 system:
# format -e >  SMI Label >  EFI Label > Specify Label type: 1 > WARNING: converting this device to EFI labels will erase all current > fdisk partition information. Continue? yes
You will have to recreate the label's partition information manually with the format command. You cannot use the fdisk command on a disk with an EFI label that is 2 terabytes in size. If the fdisk command is run on disk that is greater than 2 TB in size to create a Solaris partition, the Solaris partition is limited to 2 TB. For more information about EFI disk labels, see the preceding section.
Installing a System With an EFI-Labeled DiskThe Solaris installation utilities automatically recognize disks with EFI labels. However, you cannot use the Solaris installation program to repartition these disks. You must use the format utility to repartition an EFI-labeled disk before or after installation. The Solaris Upgrade and Live Upgrade utilities also recognize a disk with an EFI label. However, you cannot boot a system from an EFI-labeled disk.
After the Solaris release is installed on a system with an EFI-labeled disk, the partition table appears similar to the following:
Current partition table (original): Total disk sectors available: 2576924638 + 16384 (reserved sectors) Part Tag Flag First Sector Size Last Sector 0 root wm 34 1.20TB 2576924636 1 unassigned wm 0 0 0 2 unassigned wm 0 0 0 3 unassigned wm 0 0 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 0 8 reserved wm 2576924638 8.00MB 2576941021
Managing Disks With EFI Disks LabelsUse the following table to locate information on managing disks with EFI disk labels.
|Task||For More Information|
|If the system is already installed, connect the disk to the system and perform a reconfiguration boot.||SPARC: Adding a System Disk or a Secondary Disk (Task Map) or x86: Adding a System Disk or a Secondary Disk (Task Map)|
|Repartition the disk by using the format utility, if necessary.||SPARC: How to Create Disk Slices and Label a Disk or x86: How to Create Disk Slices and Label a Disk|
|Create disk volumes, and if needed, create soft partitions by using Solaris Volume Manager. Or, set up a ZFS storage pool.||Chapter 2, Storage Management Concepts, in Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide or Creating a ZFS Storage Pool in Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide|
|Create UFS file systems for the new disk by using the newfs command.||SPARC: How to Create a UFS File System or x86: How to Create File Systems|
|Or, create a ZFS file system.||How to Create ZFS File Systems in Oracle Solaris ZFS Administration Guide|
|Clone a disk with an EFI label||Example 28–2|
Troubleshooting Problems With EFI Disk LabelsUse the following error messages and solutions to troubleshoot problems with EFI-labeled disks.
- Error Message
Dec 3 09:26:48 holoship scsi: WARNING: /sbus@a,0/SUNW,socal@d,10000/ sf@1,0/ssd@w50020f23000002a4,0 (ssd1): Dec 3 09:26:48 holoship disk has 2576941056 blocks, which is too large for a 32-bit kernel
- You attempted to boot a system running a 32-bit SPARC or x86 kernel with a disk greater than 1 terabyte.
- Boot a system running a 64-bit SPARC or x86 kernel with a disk greater than 1 terabyte.
- Error Message
Dec 3 09:12:17 holoship scsi: WARNING: /sbus@a,0/SUNW,socal@d,10000/ sf@1,0/ssd@w50020f23000002a4,0 (ssd1): Dec 3 09:12:17 holoship corrupt label - wrong magic number
- You attempted to add a disk to a system running an older Solaris release.
- Add the disk to a system running the Solaris release that supports the EFI disk label.
About Disk SlicesFiles stored on a disk are contained in file systems. Each file system on a disk is assigned to a slice, which is a group of sectors set aside for use by that file system. Each disk slice appears to the Oracle Solaris OS (and to the system administrator) as though it were a separate disk drive.
For information about file systems, see Chapter 16, Managing File Systems (Overview).
Slices are sometimes referred to as partitions. Certain interfaces, such as the format utility, refer to slices as partitions.
When setting up slices, remember these rules:
Each disk slice holds only one file system.
No file system can span multiple slices.
Table 10–1 Slice Differences on SPARC and x86 Platforms
|SPARC Platform||x86 Platform|
|The entire disk is devoted to Oracle Solaris OS.||Disk is divided into fdisk partitions, one fdisk partition per operating system.|
|VTOC – The disk is divided
into 8 slices, numbered 0-7.|
EFI – The disk is divided into 7 slices, numbered 0-6.
|VTOC – The Solaris fdisk partition
is divided into 10 slices, numbered 0–9.
EFI – The disk is divided into 7 slices, numbered 0-6
For general information about Solaris Volume Manager, see Chapter 2, Storage Management Concepts, in Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide. For information on soft partitions, see Chapter 12, Soft Partitions (Overview), in Solaris Volume Manager Administration Guide.
Disk SlicesThe following table describes the slices that might be found on a system that runs the Oracle Solaris OS.
On x86 systems:
Disks are divided into fdisk partitions.
An fdisk partition is a section of the disk that is reserved
for a particular operating system, such as the Oracle Solaris OS.
The Oracle Solaris OS places ten slices, numbered 0-9, on a Solaris fdisk partition.
|Slice||File System||Usually Found on Client or Server Systems?||Comments|
|0||root (/)||Both||Holds files and directories that make up the OS.
EFI – You cannot boot from a disk with an EFI label.
|1||swap||Both||Provides virtual memory, or swap space.|
|2||—||Both||VTOC – Refers to the entire
disk, by convention. The size of this slice should not be changed.
EFI – Optional slice to be defined based on your site's needs.
|3||/export, for example||Both||Optional slice that can be defined based on your site's needs.
Can be used on a server to hold alternative versions of operating systems that are required by client systems.
|4||Both||Optional slice to be defined based on your site's needs.|
|5||/opt, for example||Both||Optional slice to be defined based on your site's needs.
Can be used to hold application software added to a system. If a slice is not allocated for the /opt file system during installation, the /opt directory is put in slice 0.
|6||/usr||Both||Holds OS commands (also known as executables). This slice also holds documentation, system programs (init and syslogd, for example), and library routines.|
|Both||Holds files that are created by users.|
|8||N/A||N/A||VTOC – Contains GRUB boot information.
EFI – A reserved slice created by default. This area is similar to the VTOC's alternate cylinders. Do not modify or delete this slice.
|9 (x86 only)||—||Both||EFI – Not applicable.
VTOC – Provides an area that is reserved for alternate disk blocks. Slice 9 is known as the alternate sector slice.
On a disk with a VTOC label, do not modify slice or use slice 2 to store a file system. Products, such as Solaris Volume Manager, Solaris Live Upgrade, and installgrub, do not work correctly if slice 2 is modified in any way.
Using Raw Data SlicesThe disk label is stored in block 0 of each disk. So, third-party database applications that create raw data slices must not start at block 0. Otherwise, the disk label will be overwritten, and the data on the disk will be inaccessible.
Do not use the following areas of the disk for raw data slices, which are sometimes created by third-party database applications:
Block 0 where the disk label is stored
Slice 2, which represents the entire disk with a VTOC label
Slice Arrangements on Multiple DisksAlthough a single large disk can hold all slices and their corresponding file systems, two or more disks are often used to hold a system's slices and file systems.
A slice cannot be split between two or more disks. However, multiple swap slices on separate disks are allowed.
For instance, a single disk might hold the root (/) file system, a swap area, and the /usr file system, while another disk holds the /export/home file system and other file systems that contain user data.
In a multiple disk arrangement, the disk that contains the OS and swap space (that is, the disk that holds the root (/) and /usr file systems and the slice for swap space) is called the system disk. Other disks are called secondary disks or non-system disks.
When you arrange a system's file systems on multiple disks, you can modify file systems and slices on the secondary disks without having to shut down the system or reload the OS.
When you have more than one disk, you also increase input-output (I/O) volume. By distributing disk load across multiple disks, you can avoid I/O bottlenecks.
Determining Which Slices to UseWhen you set up a disk's file systems, you choose not only the size of each slice, but also which slices to use. Your decisions about these matters depend on the configuration of the system to which the disk is attached and the software you want to install on the disk.
System configurations that need disk space are as follows:
Table 10–3 System Configurations and Slices
The Solaris installation utility provides default slice sizes based on the software you select for installation.
format UtilityRead the following overview of the format utility and its uses before proceeding to the “how-to” or reference sections.
The format utility is a system administration tool that is used to prepare hard disk drives for use on your Solaris system.
The following table shows the features and associated benefits that the format utility provides.
Table 10–4 Features and Benefits of the format Utility
Chapter 15, The format Utility (Reference).
When to Use the format UtilityDisk drives are partitioned and labeled by the Solaris installation utility when you install the Solaris release. You can use the format utility to do the following:
Display slice information
Partition a disk
Add a disk drive to an existing system
Format a disk drive
Label a disk
Repair a disk drive
Analyze a disk for errors
See the following section for guidelines on using the format utility.
Guidelines for Using the format UtilityTable 10–5 format Utility Guidelines
|Task||Guidelines||For More Information|
|Format a disk.||
||How to Format a Disk|
|Replace a system disk.||
||SPARC: How to Connect a System Disk and Boot, x86: How to Connect a System Disk, or, if the system must be reinstalled, Oracle Solaris 10 9/10 Installation Guide: Basic Installations|
|Divide a disk into slices.||
||SPARC: How to Create Disk Slices and Label a Disk or x86: How to Create Disk Slices and Label a Disk|
|Add a secondary disk to an existing system.||
||SPARC: How to Connect a Secondary Disk and Boot or x86: How to Connect a Secondary Disk and Boot|
|Repair a disk drive.||
||Repairing a Defective Sector|
Formatting a DiskIn most cases, disks are formatted by the manufacturer or reseller. So, they do not need to be reformatted when you install the drive. To determine if a disk is formatted, use the format utility. For more information, see How to Determine if a Disk Is Formatted.
If you determine that a disk is not formatted, use the format utility to format the disk.
When you format a disk, you accomplish two steps:
The disk media is prepared for use.
A list of disk defects based on a surface analysis is compiled.
A small percentage of total disk space that is available for data is used to store defect and formatting information. This percentage varies according to disk geometry, and decreases as the disk ages and develops more defects.
Formatting a disk might take anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on the type and size of the disk.
Partitioning a DiskThe format utility is most often used by system administrators to partitioning a Disk. The steps are as follows:
Determining which slices are needed
Determining the size of each slice or partition
Using the format utility to partition the
Labeling the disk with new partition information
Creating the file system for each partition
Partition Table TerminologyAn important part of the disk label is the partition table. The partition table identifies a disk's slices, the slice boundaries (in cylinders), and the total size of the slices. You can display a disk's partition table by using the format utility. The following describes partition table terminology.
Table 10–6 Partition Table Terminology
|Number||0–7||VTOC – Partitions or slices,
EFI – Partitions or slices, numbered 0–6.
|Tag||0=UNASSIGNED 1=BOOT 2=ROOT 3=SWAP 4=USR 5=BACKUP 7=VAR 8=HOME 11=RESERVED||A numeric value that usually describes the file system mounted on this partition.|
|Flags||wm||The partition is writable and mountable.|
|wu rm||The partition is writable and unmountable. This state is the default for partitions that are dedicated for swap areas. (However, the mount command does not check the “not mountable” flag.)|
|rm||The partition is read only and mountable.|
For more information on displaying the partition table, see the following references:
Displaying Partition Table Information
How to Display Disk Slice Information
How to Examine a Disk Label
Displaying Partition Table InformationThe following format utility output shows an example of a partition table from a 74-GB disk with a VTOC label displayed:
Total disk cylinders available: 38756 + 2 (reserved cylinders) Part Tag Flag Cylinders Size Blocks 0 root wm 3 - 2083 4.00GB (2081/0/0) 8390592 1 swap wu 2084 - 3124 2.00GB (1041/0/0) 4197312 2 backup wm 0 - 38755 74.51GB (38756/0/0) 156264192 3 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 4 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 5 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 6 unassigned wm 0 0 (0/0/0) 0 7 home wm 3125 - 38755 68.50GB (35631/0/0) 143664192 8 boot wu 0 - 0 1.97MB (1/0/0) 4032 9 alternates wu 1 - 2 3.94MB (2/0/0) 8064 partition>
|Part||Partition or slice number. See Table 10–6 for a description of this column.|
|Tag||Partition tag. See Table 10–6 for a description of this column.|
|Flag||Partition flag. See Table 10–6 for a description of this column.|
|Cylinders||The starting and ending cylinder number for the slice. Not displayed on EFI-labeled disks.|
|Size||The slice size in MB.|
|Blocks||The total number of cylinders and the total number of sectors per slice. Not displayed on EFI-labeled disks.|
|First Sector||EFI – The starting block number. Not displayed on VTOC-labeled disks.|
|Last Sector||EFI – The ending block number. Not displayed on VTOC-labeled disks.|
# prtvtoc /dev/rdsk/c4t1d0s0 * /dev/rdsk/c4t1d0s0 partition map * * Dimensions: * 512 bytes/sector * 2576941056 sectors * 2576940989 accessible sectors * * Flags: * 1: unmountable * 10: read-only * * First Sector Last * Partition Tag Flags Sector Count Sector Mount Directory 0 2 00 34 629145600 629145633 1 4 00 629145634 629145600 1258291233 6 4 00 1258291234 1318633404 2576924637 8 11 00 2576924638 16384 2576941021
|prtvtoc Column Name||Description|
|Partition||Partition or slice number. For a description of this column, see Table 10–6.|
|Tag||Partition tag. For a description of this column, see Table 10–6.|
|Flags||Partition flag. For a description of this column, see Table 10–6.|
|First Sector||The first sector of the slice.|
|Sector Count||The total number of sectors in the slice.|
|Last Sector||The last sector of the slice.|
|Mount Directory||The last mount point directory for the file system.|
Using the Free Hog SliceWhen you use the format utility to change the size of one or more disk slices, you designate a temporary slice that will expand and shrink to accommodate the resizing operations.
This temporary slice donates, or “frees,” space when you expand a slice, and receives, or “hogs,” the discarded space when you shrink a slice. For this reason, the donor slice is sometimes called the free hog.
The free hog slice exists only during installation or when you run the format utility. There is no permanent free hog slice during day-to-day operations.